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Izdavac Udruga Artikul

Zemlja se pretvara u Planet majmuna... (p)
press / Blitz,Tuesday 09 August 2011



Zemlja se pretvara u Planet majmuna— zarada na kino blagajnama u prvom vikendu prešla 77 milijuna $


'Planet majmuna: Postanak' poharao je ovog vikenda američke kino blagajne sa zaradom od 54 milijuna $, s dodatnom zaradom preko 23 milijuna $ na internacio-nalnom tržištu. Iako nas od kultnog originalnog filma 'Planet majmuna' s nezaboravnim Charltonom Hestonom dijele pune 44 godine, priča koju je taj film predstavio svijetu čitavo je to vrijeme intrigirala maštu ne samo ljubitelja filmske umjetnosti, već i znanstvenika, a širokoj svjetskoj populaciji nametnula je brojna pitanja o budućnosti. Veliki uspjeh filma, pokušao se prenijeti na nastavke 'Beneath the Planet of the Apes' iz 1970., 'Escape from the Planet of the Apes' 1971., 'Conquest of the Planet of the Apes' i 'Battle for the Planet of the Apes' iz 1973. koji nisu uspjeli doseći razinu i atmosferu 'Planeta majmuna'.



Želja da 'Planet majmuna' dobije ili nastavak ili remake u filmskom je svijetu bila prisutna cijelo vrijeme, projekti su počinjali pa se zaustavljali, a involvirana imena kretala su se od Olivera Stonea, Petera Jacksona, Arnolda Schwarzeneggera i mnogih drugih. Napokon je Tim Burton dobio zeleno svjetlo za remake i film 'Planet majmuna' je 2001. ugledao svjetlo dana. Iako je postigao odličan rezultat na kino blagajnama, nije bio omiljen od kritičara. Ipak je globalno priču o 'Planetu majmuna' približio brojnim novim generacijama.

Nakon toga su se punih 10 godina rađale ideje o filmu koji bi prethodio originalu iz 1968., a Fox studio je tražio savršenu opciju koja bi kvalitetom, pričom, efektima i atmosferom bila dostojna 'Planeta majmuna'. Rezultat je od prošlog vikenda u kinima diljem svijeta i prema prvim reakcijama gledatelja i kritičara isplatilo se čekati.


Opširne informacije o franšizi 'Planet majmuna' za sve koji žele biti upoznati s detaljima:

When respected French science-fiction author Pierre Boulle penned La Planète Des Singes, he could have had no idea that it would one day spawn a movie franchise. Indeed, he considered the 1963 novella to be one of his lesser works, with scant adaptation potential.

It’s a curious tale, and one worth summarizing. It begins with a couple on a cosmic pleasure cruise who find a bottle floating in space, and read the message within. This tells the story of astronaut Ulysse Mérou who, in the year 2500, travels to a distant planet where he finds primitive humans and advanced, talking apes, who dress like the people of 20th century Earth. Ulysse is captured and sent to a research facility where he’s adopted by a female chimpanzee called Zira, taught the apes’ language by her and her husband Cornélius and, after making a speech in front of the Ape President, is granted freedom. However, the conservative orang-utans, among them one Dr Zaius, are disturbed when Ulysse impregnates primitive human female Nova, thus proving he must be of the same species, and the ape leadership starts to fear him — especially when other discoveries reveal their planet was once run by humans who had enslaved apes. Ulysse flees with Nova and their child, landing back on Earth, due to time dilation, 700 years later. He’s horrified to find that his own world is now itself run by intelligent apes, and flees, casting his testimonial into space. The couple reading it are now themselves revealed as chimps, and they laughingly disbelieve Ulysse’s story; how could a human ever learn to write?
Boulle may have doubted the story’s cinematic appeal, but not Arthur P. Jacobs. The former Hollywood publicist-turned-producer (who counted among his former clients James Stewart and Marilyn Monroe) bought the rights and touted the project around town. But no studio would bite. Ape pictures were B-pictures, laughable nonsenses with guys in suits abducting swooning blondes and barrelling through wobbly back lot jungles.

However, after enlisting the help of Ben-Hur himself — Charlton Heston, a man seemingly hewn from the very bedrock of American myth — and proving via test footage (starring Heston, James Brolin and none other than Edward G. Robinson as Dr Zaius) that the simian make-up would not be laughable, Planet Of The Apes finally found a home at 20th Century Fox in 1966.
It’s worth remembering that this was before Star Wars. Science fiction was not considered a particularly commercial genre, more the tin-foil-wrapped realm of B-pictures. But the recent success of The Fantastic Voyage had encouraged Fox, specifically its president Richard D. Zanuck, to take a punt on Jacobs’ intriguing idea.

The resulting movie, shot the following spring and early summer on a modest budget of $5.8 million certainly was not laughable. Yet it did leave Fox laughing all the way to the bank, grossing an astonishing $32.5 million following its release on February 8, 1968, as well as impressing critics. The film, confidently directed by Franklin J. Schaffner and scripted by Michael Wilson (The Bridge On The River Kwai) and, notably, Twilight Zone creator Rod Serling, made many changes to the book. Ulysse Merou became George Taylor (Heston), a misanthropic astronaut who, with his two surviving companions, splashes down on an unknown world in the late 40th century. Like Ulysse he traumatically encounters dumb-beast humans and advanced apes, takes up with primitive girl Nova (Linda Harrison) — although he never so much kisses her, let alone impregnates her — befriends Zira (Kim Hunter) and Cornelius (Roddy McDowall) and elicits the enmity of Dr. Zaius (Maurice Evans). Unlike Ulysse he never escapes the planet, instead riding off into “The Forbidden Zone” to discover, in one of the greatest twist endings ever conceived, that this “madhouse” world is actually our own, 2,000 years hence.

The changes to the book were all to the movie’s credit, and in fact help fuel its longevity; of all the Planet Of The Apes pictures, it stands up best under modern re-examination. Boulle’s higher-tech ape world was wound back to a more primitive state to better accommodate budget constraints. Who could deny that art director William Creber’s seemingly rock-sculpted Ape City, modelled on the ancient troglodyte dwellings in Cappadocia, Turkey, gave the film a more timeless quality than apes piloting helicopters around skyscrapers? How much less enduring would images from the film be if its gorillas, orang-utans and chimpanzees had donned the fashions of the ’60s, rather than the strikingly embossed black, orange and green uniforms designed by Morton Haack? The shift both enforced the film’s fantastical atmosphere and galvanized its themes; Boulle’s class commentary (noting the divisions between the gorilla labourer/soldiers, the chimp intellectuals and the orang-utan aristocrats/religious leaders) would not have been so well borne out if Haack’s colour coding hadn’t been employed.

Special mention should go to John Chambers’ astonishing prosthetic make-up work. Chambers had been a medical technician during World War Two, when he’d designed prosthetic limbs for wounded soldiers. Now his expertise had been utilized to fashion convincing ape make-up, which even today impress. Techniques have doubtlessly advanced since Chambers’ work. If you compare it with Rick Baker’s make up in Tim Burton’s 2001 remake, you’ll notice that the teeth are barely visible, the actors’ voices are noticeably muffled, and there’s far less facial detail. Yet it’s no effort whatsoever to accept the world and these characters as anything other than real. Which is exactly what audiences did, proving utterly absorbed by the performances of Hunter, McDowall, Evans et al, and entranced by Schaffner’s terrifying vision of a world turned upside-down.

So why did audiences around the world flock to The Planet Of The Apes? Because it was simply a great entertainment, argues Richard D. Zanuck. “I saw it as an adventure piece,” he says in the superb 1998 documentary Behind The Planet Of The Apes. “People have dissected it and added a lot of layers of meaning to it that I as the head of the studio never thought of. You didn’t want the audience to go up the aisle thinking anything but that they’d been entertained.”

This may explain the film’s strong theatrical run, but it’s not enough to account for the way it struck such a deep chord that resonated for years to come. Any successful film should be considered in the context of its time. Consciously or not, those making it are thinking of the world around them, just as those buying the tickets are recognizing something within it. The America of 1968 was a society stricken by upheaval. “How in hell did this upside-down civilization ever get started?” bellows Taylor at one point. Well, it got started in late ’60s America, a place riven by race riots, crippling political polarization, the assassinations of President Kennedy, his brother Bobby, Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, not to mention the Vietnam War and the protest movement against that war. To have a star like Heston, formerly an icon of strength, power and decency, reduced to a beast in a cage and beaten by gorillas must have struck hard with American audiences, even on a subliminal level. And we must not forget that the Cuban Missile Crisis had been only six years earlier. The threat of world nuclear annihilation was very real. It wasn’t really much of a leap for people to accept that one day our world would be like the one discovered by Taylor, with that very potent symbol of hope, Lady Liberty, lying shattered and corroded on a desolate beach. Like all great sci-fi, Planet Of The Apes throbs with socio-political commentary.

“Without ever saying it,” recalled producer Mort Abrahams, “we were doing a political film. We never even said it very loudly among ourselves because at that time we were in Vietnam and a political picture was the last kind of film that a studio wanted.”
Well, it was certainly not the last kind of Apes film that a studio wanted. Planet Of The Apes’ success was immense. It was even Oscar-nominated — for Haack’s costume design and Jeff Goldsmith’s groundbreaking, avant-garde score — with a special Academy Award going to John Chambers. Maybe it shouldn’t have been a surprise when, during a conversation with Abrahams and Jacobs, Fox executive production manager Stan Hough soon suggested, “Why don’t you do a sequel?” But the two producers were taken aback. “You’ve got to be kidding!” exclaimed Abrahams. “How?”

The answer was ‘with considerable difficulty’. Planet Of The Apes wasn’t exactly open ended; you couldn’t call the Statue Of Liberty reveal a cliffhanger. It was a self-contained piece. Yet Pierre Boulle himself had a go, as did Rod Serling. Their efforts — which focused on Taylor and Nova either fleeing Earth and the 40th century or freeing mankind from Ape enslavement — lacked the requisite element of visual impact, Abrahams and Jacobs felt. Eventually English poet and screenwriter Paul Dehn, best known for his spy thrillers (including adaptations of The Spy Who Came In From The Cold and Goldfinger) conceived Planet Of The Apes Revisited, which had Taylor and Nova discovering a race of nuclear-bomb-worshipping psychic mutants in the subterranean former Manhattan of The Forbidden Zone, while the apes march into the Zone with the intent of destroying all humans. It was to climax with a nuclear explosion that Nova, Taylor, Zira and Cornelius survive. A new order of ape-human peace and prosperity was to start, culminating in the birth of a chimp-human hybrid.

This last element may raise eyebrows, but Jacobs even went as far as ordering make-up tests. Apes, though, was considered family entertainment, and Fox didn’t relish the thought of even implying inter-species sexual relations — despite that iconic kiss between Taylor and Zira in the first film. The humanzee child was ditched.

Further problems occurred when Schaffner proved unable to return, and Heston downright refused. “The only story you could tell had been told in Planet Of The Apes,” said Heston. “Anything further would just be adventures among the monkeys.” Yet, after a meeting with Zanuck in which the latter basically asked Heston to return the favor of greenlighting the first film, the actor agreed to appear only if he were killed during the opening scene; later revised to disappearing in the opening scene, then returning to die at the film’s denouement.

Made by director Ted Post on a reduced budget of $3 million, the movie now titled Beneath The Planet Of The Apes proved another commercial success (grossing $19 million at the US box-office in 1970), but was not nearly so loved by reviewers. And deservedly so. Drafting in TV actor James Fransiscus as Taylor-Lite astronaut Brent, who crashes in the Forbidden Zone shortly after Taylor’s disappearance, the film drifts into the very ‘daft B-picture’ territory the studio had feared the first movie might occupy, particularly once the facially-seared mutants appear (including Jacobs’ wife Natalie Trundy, making her first of four appearances in the series, none of which are particularly to her or the films’ credit). Franciscus merely got to relive Heston’s arc in the first film, and the absence of Roddy McDowall was keenly felt (he was tied up directing The Ballad Of Tam Lin in Scotland, so David Watson was brought in as understudy).

Still, it chimed with audiences, and again offered commentary on contemporary concerns, through inclusions like the mutants’ bomb-worshipping hymn (sung on a retooled church set from Hello Dolly!), and the chimp anti-war protestors whose placards get unsubtly driven into the dirt. James Gregory’s performance as the warmongering General Ursus brings to mind John Wayne, a relevant echo as the unashamedly right-wing Duke was one of the few Hollywood stars with the gall to make a pro-Vietnam War movie (1968’s The Green Berets).

The anti-war/nuclear message couldn’t be more rammed home when, at the film’s devastating ending, a mortally wounded Taylor, distraught at the deaths of both Nova and Brent at the hands of Ursus’ gorilla troops, detonates the world-incinerating Alpha-Omega bomb, leaving The Planet Of The Apes a lifeless, glowing ember. This, claims Heston, was his idea. “I thought, ‘that’s the end of the sequels!’” said the actor.
Far from it. Four months after the film’s release Paul Dehn received a telegram from Arthur P. Jacobs: “Apes exist. Sequel required.”

Viewed from a modern perspective, Planet Of The Apes is an undeniably strange franchise. It was both appealing to children, but also at times incredibly bleak. The moebian twists and turns of its plot, meanwhile, boggle the mind. Dehn indeed concocted a way to return to The Planet Of The Apes with 1971’s Escape From The Planet Of The Apes, which cast Zira and Cornelius (McDowall, returned) back in time to 1973, thereby reversing the ape/human dynamic that defined the first two films and also incorporating many unused elements of Boulle’s novel (although, again, in reverse). For the first time, the Apes are heroes and the humans the villains who, after making the two talking chimps celebrities, turn on them when it is revealed that Zira is pregnant, having also learned that the chimps’ descendents will come to dominate man and, they believe, destroy Earth. The tone is initially one of levity (there is even a montage scene where Cornelius and Zira humorously try on human clothes), but it then turns dark as the two beloved characters are hunted down and murdered.

For the first time, though, audiences were treated to a cliffhanger: Zira and Cornelius’ son, Milo, is revealed as having been secretly switched with a normal chimp, and survives in the care of circus owner Señor Armando (the excellent Ricardo Montalban). Milo, who renames himself Caesar and is played as an adult by Roddy McDowall, after this point becomes the series’ main character. His first adventure is the Dehn-scripted/Jim Lee Thompson-directed Conquest Of The Planet Of The Apes. Despite the lowest budget yet (a mere $1.7 million) and a diminished box-office return ($9 million, compared with Escape’s $12 million) this actually proved to be the strongest of the Apes sequels as, in a seemingly fascist America of 1991, developed Apes are treated as slaves until Caesar leads a bloody revolution against his human oppressors. A re-edited ending allowed for a more optimistic note to be struck in an otherwise doomy story (McDowall had to record an addendum to Caesar’s final speech which provided a note of conciliation with humans rather than a call for their extermination), but it was still felt that Conquest had taken the series too far from its family audience roots.

Thus the final, cheapest, and poorest instalment, Battle For The Planet Of The Apes, again directed by Thompson, but this time scripted by John William Corrington and Joyce Hooper Corrington, from a story suggested by Dehn (although his original dark ending — which would have seen Caesar dying and the belligerent gorillas taking over — was rejected). Pushing a little forward into the future, and set in a freshly post-nuclear-apocalyptic earth of the early 21st century, it shows a mellowed Caesar in a bucolic Ape City attempting to protect his human wards from his more aggressive gorilla followers, until the progenitors of Beneath The Planet Of The Apes’ bomb-loving mutants provoke conflict. That it’s the most optimistic of the films provides one source of its weakness; it feels out of step to end, in the 27th century, with the orang-utan Lawgiver (John Huston!) extolling the value of ape-human co-existence, although there is a welcome note of ambivalence: a chimp child spitefully pulling a human girl’s pigtail, then a statue of Caesar seemingly shedding a single tear for the world’s future.

Battle is also less concerned with social commentary, beyond its general ‘why can’t we all just get along?’ tone. The two preceding films, however, are loaded with subtext, primarily concerning themselves with divided societies, fear of diversity and naked prejudice. Conquest’s urban ape revolution scenes were even directly inspired by the 1965 Watts race riots. Until the final film, audiences were still seeing something of themselves and of their own, troubled world in the Apes mythology.

And they would do for years yet, firstly through the short-run TV show, which, while a flop in the US (it was unwisely scheduled by NBC against two of the country’s best-loved sitcoms, Sanford And Son and Chico And The Man) proved a huge success in the UK. Also, in 1974, Fox rereleased all five movies amid a huge publicity and marketing blitz that invited audiences to “Go Ape”. With 60 different companies granted licenses to produce Planet Of The Apes products, from action figures to board games to waste-paper baskets, the model for a future sci-fi merchandising phenomenon — Star Wars — was set.

Planet Of The Apes was a product of its turbulent time, granted endurance through the power of its themes and the cogency of its core concept. It’s unsurprising then, that attempts to revive the franchise began as early as 1988. Attempts made by some very impressive Hollywood players. The first was conceived by screenwriter Adam Rifkin as a new sequel to the first film, which would see Ape culture reach “its Roman era”, and involve a descendant of Taylor sparking a Spartacus-like revolt. Tom Cruise was mentioned for the lead. But just before it went into pre-production, a regime change at Fox sparked creative differences and the project was abandoned.

Then Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh — who would go on to make movie history with the Lord Of The Rings trilogy — pitched an idea which resurrected the human-chimp hybrid concept in a Renaissance-period Ape world, and even conceived a character for Roddy McDowall, who enthusiastically backed the project. But again, film-makers and executives failed to see eye-to-eye.
In 1993, Oliver Stone was employed to produce and co-write a new Planet Of The Apes — Return Of The Apes — which involved a human-exterminating plague, time-travel back to the Stone Age, and the revelation that intelligent apes existed in man’s past. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed on for the lead and Phillip Noyce was hired as director in January 1995, with a budget set at $100 million and Stan Winston on board to do the prosthetics. But again creative differences scuppered the project. Ironically, given Zanuck’s concerns that the 1968 film could have been seen as comical, Fox executives were now asking for more comedy in the script. Given that the ’90s were a time of immense prosperity in the Western world, far from the dark days of the late ’60s, the world just wasn’t culturally the right place for a new Apes movie.
Yet, one was of course eventually made. After further attempts by Chris Columbus, Sam Hamm (Batman) and even James Cameron to find a new story, it was Tim Burton who, to use his own word, ‘re-imagined’ Schaffner’s movie, and Boulle’s novel, in 2001.

The film had high production values, deeply impressive make-up work, cameos from Linda Harrison and Charlton Heston (as an ape) and proved a major global box-office success, grossing more than $362 million worldwide. Yet the critical reception was poor and it crucially failed to spawn a new series. When Tim Burton was once asked if he’d make another Planet Of The Apes film he famously replied, “I’d rather jump out of a window”.

The film lacks any of the original’s resonance. Made in a more peaceful, prosperous time (note the release predates 9/11) it simply lacks conviction. It is, in a way, a product of the wrong time, but it also makes fundamental mistakes: its ‘primitive’ humans talk, thus making the astronaut-from-the-past character (Mark Wahlberg) less remarkable; Wahlberg never questions his predicament, he only seeks to escape it; the film drops the class-divisions between the chimps, gorillas and orang-utans, thereby making ape society less interesting; it clumsily goes for comedy too often (one scene involves an orang-utan removing his wig and dentures); and, in an attempt to avoid merely copying the original, it insistently makes the titular Planet not Earth.

Screenwriter William Broyles Jr at least proved faithful to Boulle’s novel when it came to the twist ending, but this merely confused people rather than shocking them to the core of their very beings. Wahlberg’s astronaut escapes the planet and heads back through the time warp to Earth, only to find his ferocious chimp nemesis Thade (Tim Roth) has somehow (one would argue impossibly) arrived before him and transformed the world into one that’s ape-dominated. The problem with this is that it primarily seems to exist as a cliffhanger to be resolved in a second movie that never came, rather than a solid, horribly logical endpoint — with politically relevant subtexts — like the original’s Statue Of Liberty revelation.

Even that was not to be the end of the franchise. Once again, 20th Century Fox has returned to The Planet Of The Apes with an entirely new concept, but one which is intended both as a franchise reboot and as a prequel to the original. Now, in Rise Of The Planet Of The Apes, the apes’ origin is not found with the time-travelling Cornelius and Zira, nor a cosmic virus which destroys the world’s cats and dogs. Rather, it’s the result of medical testing and genetic manipulation, as apes are experimented on in an attempt to cure Alzheimer’s disease. Caesar does return, though, to lead the revolution, albeit as a re-conceived character and now played by Andy Serkis — like Roddy McDowall a British actor, and like McDowall adept at working with groundbreaking new techniques to deliver compelling performances.

Those techniques in this movie involve the work of visual-effects company Weta Digital and the same kind of performance-capture it used in James Cameron’s Avatar, although this time in a live-action environment. Caesar and his fellow apes are digitally created, photo-real apes, depicted only at the start of their accelerated evolution. The concept is bold, the budget is considerable and the studio and filmmakers are convinced the film will find an audience as huge as the previous Apes movies. The film’s main titles may read James Franco, Freida Pinto and John Lithgow but the star of the show is entirely Caesar and the story is likely to be perceived from his point of view. He is a fully believable sentient, thinking, feeling being who is likely to ignite empathy in all who immerse themselves in his story.

We live in less certain times than when Tim Burton’s movie was produced and released. And the new film seems loaded with potential for political and ethical commentary, from the rights and wrongs of animal testing, to the broader question of how we treat other species, especially those genetically closest to us.
Rise director Rupert Wyatt, now the sixth to adapt Boulle’s source text for the big screen, has an interesting take on the series’ enduring popularity, one that considers its appeal on a more primal level. “Thematically The Planet Of The Apes was very interesting and ambitious,” he says, “it had a whole level of social commentary. But the thing I think actually turned it into so much of a phenomenon and intrigued people so much was the whole idea of a primate that is so like us, but is not us. I don’t know whether it’s a base thing that primally we’re all kind of thrown by that, but when you hear an ape talk it’s not like a shark talking, it’s a very different reaction, and I think for that reason it fascinated people.”

And, even if they no longer cause pursuing children to hurl turf at them, those “damn, dirty apes” will continue to fascinate people for years to come.

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